In Leadership 2030, Georg Vielmetter and Yvonne Sell provide a road map of the broad trends that are reshaping markets, cultures, and companies. The level of material culture can aid in developing products for individual markets. For companies selling industrial goods, such as General Electric, this can provide a convenient starting point. In developing countries demand may be highest for basic may be more in demand. Technologic advances have probably been the major cause of cultural change in many countries. The increase in leisure time so characteristic in Western cultures has been a direct result of technologic development. With technologic advancement comes also cultural convergence. Black and white television sets extensively penetrated U.S. households more than 10 years before similar levels occurred in Europe and Japan. With color television the lag was reduced to 5 years. With videocassette recorders the difference was only 3 years, but this time the Europeans and the Japanese led the way while the United States was concentrating on cable systems. With the compact disk penetration rates were equal in only 1 year. Today with MTV available by satellite across Europe no lag exists18.
The objective of ecological economics is to ground economic thinking and practice in physical reality, especially in the laws of thermodynamics and biological systems. It accepts as a goal the improvement of human wellbeing through economic development, and seeks to ensure achievement of this through planning for the sustainable development of ecosystems and societies. Ecological economics distinguishes itself from neoclassical economics primarily by the assertion that economics is a subfield of ecology, in that ecology deals with the energy and matter transactions of life and the Earth, and the human economy is by definition contained within this system. This system is defined as natural capital, which consists of all non-renewable resources such as oil, coal, gas, and minerals, and renewable resources such as ecosystems that comprise the planet, in both quantitative and qualitative terms. It involves such terms as ‘carrying capacity’ which refers to the ability of nature to support human activities, and goes to the center of what sustainable development is, and from which emerged sustainable entrepreneurship.
Menurunnya tingkat pengangguran berdampak terhadap naiknya pendapatan perkapita dan daya beli masyarakat, serta tumbuhnya perekonomian secara nasional. Selain itu, berdampak pula terhadap menurunnya tingkat kriminalitas yang biasanya ditimbulkan oleh karena tingginya pengangguran. Ahli teori Frank Knight dan Peter Drucker menekankan pengambilan risiko dalam kewirausahaan. 18 Pengusaha bersedia mempertaruhkan karier dan keuangannya dan mengambil risiko atas nama ide, menghabiskan waktu serta modal untuk usaha yang hasilnya belum pasti. Namun, pengusaha sering tidak percaya bahwa mereka telah mengambil risiko yang sangat besar karena mereka tidak menganggap tingkat ketidakpastian setinggi orang lain. No one is born an entrepreneur. The reason why some people can succeed their parents’ business so well, or become successful entrepreneurs, is because they learn business management skills like selling, marketing, leadership, management and communication since young. They also mix with people who are entrepreneur-minded (like their successful parents), or people who have built multiple successful businesses.